Chapter 14 Studyguide

 

Multiple Choice

When earthworms add their wastes to the soil, then die and decay in the soil, they are contributing to the formation of

a.

litter.

b.

silt.

c.

humus.

d.

clay.

 

 

The geological principle stating that the same processes that operate today also operated in the past is called

a.

uniformitarianism.

b.

mechanical weathering.

c.

chemical weathering.

d.

soil conservation.

 

 

What can cause the loss of soil that is not protected by plant cover?

a.

chemical weathering

b.

too many organisms in the soil

c.

mechanical weathering

d.

erosion by water or wind

 

 

Soil formation begins with the weathering of

a.

the A horizon.

b.

bedrock.

c.

humus.

d.

litter.

 

 

A permeable rock weathers easily because it

a.

is made up of only one mineral.

b.

is made up of many minerals.

c.

is made up of small particles.

d.

contains many small, connected airspaces.

 

 

What kind of weathering causes the mineral composition of rocks to change?

a.

permeable weathering

b.

general weathering

c.

chemical weathering

d.

mechanical weathering

 

 

Soil formation would take place most rapidly with the weathering of

a.

granite in a cold, dry climate.

b.

limestone in a desert.

c.

granite on a mountain top.

d.

limestone in a warm, wet climate.

 

 

Ice wedging causes mechanical weathering of rock by means of

a.

heating and cooling.

b.

plant growth.

c.

animal actions.

d.

freezing and thawing of water.

 

 

A marble statue is left exposed to the weather. Within a few years, the details on the statue have begun to weather away. This weathering probably is caused by

a.

oxygen in the air.

b.

lichens.

c.

carbonic acid in rainwater.

d.

abrasion.

 

 

The growth of plant roots and animal activity may result in

a.

erosion.

b.

mechanical weathering.

c.

abrasion.

d.

chemical weathering.

 

 

The most important factors in determining the rate of weathering are

a.

rock type and climate.

b.

abrasion and acids from plant roots.

c.

animal actions and oxygen.

d.

carbon dioxide and acid rain.

 

 

Geologists infer from the rounded, eroded shapes of the Appalachian Mountains that

a.

the mountains formed recently.

b.

the mountains are made of soft rock.

c.

the principle of uniformitarianism does not apply.

d.

the mountains have been eroding for millions of years.

 

 

A hot and wet climate causes weathering to take place

a.

unevenly.

b.

at the same rate as when the climate is dry and cool.

c.

slowly.

d.

rapidly.

 

 

A rock containing iron becomes soft and crumbly and reddish-brown in color. It probably has been chemically weathered by

a.

oxygen.

b.

abrasion.

c.

acid rain.

d.

carbon dioxide.

 

 

The agent of mechanical weathering in which rock is worn away by the grinding action of other rock particles is called

a.

ice wedging.

b.

erosion.

c.

abrasion.

d.

cracking and peeling.

 

Modified True/False 

The type of weathering that occurs due to release of pressure is mechanical weathering. _________________________

 

The loose material on Earth’s surface that contains weathered rock particles and humus is bedrock. _________________________

 

The rate of chemical weathering is faster in hot, wet climates than in cold, dry climates. _________________________

 

The C horizon is a soil layer containing only partly weathered rock. _________________________

 

The movement of rock particles by ice, wind, water, or gravity is called weathering. _________________________

 

Completion

One agent of chemical weathering is _________________________, which combines with water to form carbonic acid.

 

Soil begins to form when the solid layer of rock called ____________________ weathers.

 

The loose layer of plant remains that accumulates on the ground is called ____________________.

 

A rock that contains tiny, connected spaces through which water can move is said to be ____________________.

 

The actions of animals most commonly can cause the type of weathering known as ____________________.

 

One cause of mechanical weathering is ____________________, or the wearing away of rock by rock particles.

 

Water and wind can ____________________ soil, or carry it away.

 

Two factors that determine the rate of weathering are the type of rock and the ____________________.

 

Some plants produce acids that result in ____________________ weathering.

 

Rapid chemical weathering can be caused by ____________________, which is rain combined with pollutants.

After chemical weathering, the chemical makeup of the weathered rock is the same as that of the original rock. _________________________

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